AUTHORBeata Fogarasi Beata is a junior in the SFS studying International Politics. Originally from Connecticut, she is studying in Gaborone, Botswana this spring at the University of Botswana. Interested in regional politics and development, she hopes to combine her...
March 21, 2013
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Dumela: Language Education and Minorities in Botswana
March 21, 2013 | 2 COMMENTS
About 80% of Batswana speak Setswana, the national language, but documents and government work are written primarily in English, the official language. More than twenty languages are spoken in the country, but many minority languages do not have fully developed writing systems, and only Setswana and English are used in schools. Schools switch from teaching in Setswana with some English lessons to teaching fully in English after a few years in primary school, forcing students to catch up quickly. Since other languages are not accommodated in schools, students whose mother tongue is not Setswana face even more challenges, as they have to learn two languages simultaneously.
The implications of linguistic mainstreaming are serious; language is an integral part of culture. In addition, minority language speakers face an inherent academic disadvantage when required to use a different language in school. This is not a problem unique to Botswana, and policymaking will have to be careful: education and public life should be inclusive to all, but it is difficult to accommodate everyone. At independence, less than fifty years ago, the leaders of the new country sought to build a unified nation, encouraging Setswana to be the nation’s language. By most measures, they were fabulously successful- not only has Botswana avoided the stereotype of African ethnic conflict, but it has created an independent, strong economy and progressed strongly on many development indicators.
Today, the Government of Botswana is committed to protecting indigenous languages on paper, but in reality it requires Setswana to be taught in schools and for local communities to make provisions for other languages if parents request their instruction. This is often impossible, impractical, or far too expensive; when given the option of studying a third language in high school, students often choose French instead of an indigenous language.
Just across the border, South Africa faces a similar problem- with eleven official languages enshrined in the constitution, I was told on a visit that anyone is fine as long as they speak either English, Afrikaans, Zulu, or Xhosa. But the reality is that English is the dominant language in Southern Africa, and it is always gaining ground. In Botswana too, people want to master their English because it’s useful. English is good to have on a resume and it’s necessary for Batswana who want to find work in South Africa (youth unemployment is a big problem here). English is necessary for higher education and for communicating with foreigners who come to study, work, tour, and invest in Botswana.
The only time I’ve had problems communicating in English in more than two months here was talking with the cleaning lady in my dorm. She speaks very little English, and when she realized I was taking a Setswana class, she tried for weeks to have a full conversation with me. Slowly I worked my way up from Dumela mma! Le kae? Ke teng! (Hello! How are you? I am well!) to explaining where I came from, where I was traveling to, and of course the fallback phrase for complicated discussions- Ga ke itse Setswana thata: I don’t understand a lot of Setswana. It’s a difficult language and it’s very different from the European languages I’ve studied in the past- except for some English words for modern things (cliniki for clinic), Setswana has virtually no grammatical or vocabulary connections.
Botswana boasts a fascinating fusion of its two main languages in everyday life; the malls are full of English while the markets just outside buzz with salesmen advertising their wares in Setswana. The ease with which conversations bend back and forth between the two languages is impressive. The two-stepped dominance of these languages- English the international standard, Setswana the national- over the minority languages is worrying. I would love to return to Botswana in fifteen or twenty years to observe its development in terms of political stability, economic diversification, and public health, but also to see its linguistic progress. Will these smaller languages, like Kalanga and Sekgalagadi, flourish or falter? Will Setswana gain ground in professional and academic circles, or will the separation between private and public language use widen?
Dumela, or hello, comes from the Setswana word that means to believe- greeting someone literally means “I believe we are friends.” Balancing languages and cultures is difficult, but I believe there is a commitment to cultural preservation and diversity that will protect and empower these minorities.
COMMENT FROM PATRICK DEEM April 9, 2013
Beata, I very much enjoyed reading your blog post on language, education, and identity in Botswana, especially because it reminds me of some of the sociolinguistic dynamics that I have found in North Africa, in countries like Egypt and Tunisia. In many countries of Arab world, a similar relationship has arisen between Arabic, the national language and native language of the majority of the population, and English or French, the languages of the region’s former colonizers.
Although Arabic is very much an international force, with hundreds of millions of native speakers across two continents, many place huge importance on learning a European language. As a result, there seems to be a number of comparisons between language in Botswana and language in the Arab world. Like in Botswana, for example, Tunisia’s education system officially promotes and even requires bilingualism. Even after they have finished school, many Tunisians freely switch between Arabic and French.
Additionally, like the situation of Botswana’s minorities, minority languages in the Arab world have historically lost ground to both Arabic and European languages. Nubians from Egypt’s South, for example, have increasingly come to speak Egyptian Arabic, and some members of the younger generations no longer speak the Nubian language. Recently, however, the Nubian community has tried to promote their language, notably by opening a Nubian language school in central Cairo. Still, these efforts are inevitably costly and come with mixed success.
Clearly, Botswana, Tunisia, and Egypt have approached language in similar ways after the colonial age and post-independence. I, too, am interested in seeing how language dynamics will evolve over the coming decades.
COMMENT FROM KIERAN HALLORAN July 3, 2013
You bring up a great issue that is present throughout all of Africa
it seems. I have had similar experiences with Tanzania, and Kenya and
these two countries have had different responses to this struggle.
Tanzania is very similar to Botswana in this regard. Nyerere pushed
Swahili to be the national language in order to encourage national
unity over the ethnic and religious diversity that existed in the
country. And the end result is the same as Botswana with Swahili being
the language of instruction in primary school, and switching to
English in secondary school. This has placed many students at a
disadvantage while certain tribes have struggled to maintain their
cultural identities in face of certain government policies.
While Kenya made Swahili the official language and has a similar education system to Tanzania, the socio-linguistic landscape is much better. The indigenous languages such as Kikuyu, Luo, and Kikamba are all still widely spoken within their ethnic groups. And in Kenyan society, the spoken language is typically a mix of Swahili and English called Shang. Shang (though not proper Swahili) has nonetheless facilitated communication amongst Kenyans as well as made it easier for people to learn English and Swahili while maintaining their traditional languages. Perhaps with greater respect and integration of the indigenous and official languages, Botswana can achieve this balance found in Kenya. If not, then Botswana could very well continue down the same path as Tanzania.
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