AUTHORMorgan McDaniel Morgan McDaniel is a junior in the School of Foreign Service originally from Pelham, New York. She is majoring in Culture and Politics with a focus on gender violence issues, and is pursuing an SFS certificate in Arab Studies. In the fall of 2011...
October 28, 2011
The Junior Year Abroad Network (JYAN) connects Georgetown students studying abroad in a variety of cultures. Students share reflections on religion, culture, politics, and society in their host countries, commenting on topics ranging from religious freedom and interfaith dialogue to secularization, globalization, democracy, and economics.
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No Honor in Crime: Jordanian Women Change the Conversation about Honor Killings
December 3, 2011 | 1 COMMENT
But activist women in Jordan who are involved in the “No Honor in Crime” movement are speaking out against honor killings. They are calling for not just reforms in legal punishments, but changes in the culture that makes these honor crimes possible. In an interesting article on the Jordanian site 7iber, the author argues that focusing just on the statistics of honor killings is misleading; instead, Jordanians need to focus on the context in which these crimes occur.
“The archives of No Honor in Crime indicate seventeen cases of honor killings this year so far. But our archives are unable to give you statistics on the number of women beaten every night who wake up in the morning and make coffee for their ‘honorable’ husbands. . . . And statistics are unable to count the women in prison because they are threatened with murder. If you want to know the real statistics, then don’t count the number of victims but count the number of women who are frightened, and don’t research the number of offenders who kill on the pretext of honor, but research the number of men prepared to spill the blood of their female relatives who dare to take off their jilbabs.”*
Honor killings are generally considered to be a Muslim phenomenon, but although Muslims commit the majority of honor crimes in Jordan, Christians commit them as well. The concept of honor was an integral part of Arab society before the spread of Islam, and today seems to permeate the culture to such a degree that it regulates interactions between men and women, and draws the line between what is appropriate and what is forbidden.
Any behavior that might suggest a woman is not chaste threatens her honor, and this necessitates the separation between men and women. A woman’s honor is also her family’s honor, and if she is thought to have transgressed sexual mores, the problem is so serious her family might feel justified in killing her.
Although historically punishments for these murders have been lenient, there has been some legal reform. In the past, men who committed honor killings sought protection under a clause for crimes committed in “a fit of fury.” Where in the past these men would serve two years, now they might serve seven.
In any case, research shows that these killings are far from the uncontrollable fits of fury, but calculated attacks in which multiple family members are involved, including mothers. Because the law is more lenient for minors, often the family will have a younger brother commit the murder – his sentence will only be about three to six months. Sometimes, women will commit themselves to prison to escape murder because they have nowhere else to go. About thirteen women are currently imprisoned in Jordan out of fear of their families.
Like every taboo, the problem continues because of fear to challenge it. Women don’t speak out against these crimes because they’re afraid of their names appearing in media and shaming their families. But the “No Honor in Crime” movement challenges the “honor” culture by creating a space where the very concept of honor can be critiqued. The mainstream discourse on honor killing, as far as I can tell, considers honor killings to be a legitimate category separate from other murders, and when these crimes are condemned, they are condemned because the murdered woman was innocent, not because there is something inherent wrong with an honor killing itself.
But No Honor in Crime seeks to shift this discourse away from whether the woman was guilty of any shame, and conceives of the murder itself as a crime that cannot be justified. “No Honor in Crime is a movement for the elicitation of justice,” says the main page on their website. “We believe that the deeds must be called by their names: a crime is a crime and a murder is a murder of a human being. We believe that these actions need to be held accountable for what they are: crime must be punished as crime and murder as murder. No Honor in Crime is a movement that seeks the truth: because the truth is the most honorable human demand.”*
From where I stand, the social system in Jordan is meant to protect women and protect their honor, where men and women avoid interaction, and don’t sit next to each other on the bus, and can’t be trusted to be out together without a chaperone, might be meant to eliminate the subject of sex from everyone’s minds, but instead it forces everyone to focus on it. Instead of making a woman’s body invisible, it makes a woman’s body, and what she does or does not do with it, the most important thing about her. Rather than protecting her, this makes her vulnerable, because when you take the system’s logic to its ultimate conclusion, it enables violence in the name of “honor.” And that isn’t to say that America is any better – we have our own cultural norms that enable and engender violence against women. But I applaud these women for breaking taboos and challenging the society around them to examine critically the ideas that allow these horrible crimes.
*Translated from Arabic; all mistakes in translation are my own.
COMMENT FROM PROF. PAUL HECK February 13, 2012
Morgan, you've hit upon one of the more fascinating sides of the Arab world, one that touches upon all religious communities. I'm glad you had such a fruitful experience. It sounds like the Arabs of Jordan, both Christians and Muslims, had something to teach you. I too have learned a lot from my time in the Arab world, including the experience of being more public about one's beliefs.
I have just a couple remarks in response to your reflections:
First, there is a rich array of terms around the concept of honor. It's not a single word in Arabic. Were you able to notice that? For example, there's karāma, which speaks to the honor of an individual male before his family, community, etc. Then there's sharaf, which speaks to one's social standing. Finally, there's 'irḍ, which is often equated with female virginity (and thus the honor of the family). So you may enjoy delving even further into the concept of honor in your research and reflections. There's a lot there!
Question: Why do you think honor persists as such a powerful concept even when Jordanians (especially the rising generations) are exposed to all kinds of modernist thinking? Or, to put it another way, why do you think we in the US don't make so much about honor in the way Jordanians do? Do you think it might have anything to do with the respective understandings that the two cultures have of the role of the state in our lives and in society in general? Or something else? On another note, would you put "crimes of passion" that exist in our society in the same category as "honor crimes" in Jordanian society?
Second, your reflections speak to the question of religious inculturation. What in the world does that mean? In a sense, it means that religion is not so much a meta-cultural phenomenon. That is, religion is something that emerges out of a particular cultural context, as opposed to something inserted into it. There are certainly many things that believers from a single religion share across cultures, but religious inculturation means that believers from different religions who share a single culture have many things in common that they both view as part of "religion."
Question: Do you have a chance to attend Arab Christian services in Jordan? Did you notice anything there that differs from the services you attend in the US? Would you attribute it to inculturation? Or something else?
Good luck as you continue to pursue these questions!
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