Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association
As an umbrella organization founded in 1957, the Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association (CCPA) organized the Church in China under government auspices—a break with the Republican period. The Catholic Church in China was under the control of foreign missionaries up through the 1949 revolution, and some Church institutions resisted the establishment of communist rule. The CCPA consecrates bishops in China without the approval of the pope, but many are informally recognized by Rome. There remains no formal diplomatic relations between the Vatican and the Chinese government, but negotiation talks continue. The CCPA offices are located in Beijing.