Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) is an Islamic militant organization that supports the Islamic State (IS); its members are primarily Uzbek-Afghans. IMU formed in the early 1990s, evolving under the leadership of Tohir Yo’ldoshev and Juma Namangoniy during and after the Tajik civil war. Facing state opposition in Uzbekistan and lacking the power to operate independently, between 2001 and 2015 IMU militants worked on behalf of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Attacks included airport bombings in Peshawar and Karachi in 2012 and 2014. In the 2010s, IMU has struggled to attract recruits due to the Islamic State's popularity. After Pakistani military actions forced IMU to the Afghan-Uzbek border in 2015, the IMU renounced the Taliban in favor of rival IS; the 13 year absence of the Taliban leader and IS support in northern Afghanistan were motivating factors.