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April 23, 2014  |  About the Berkley Center  |  Directions to the Center  |  Subscribe
 
Topics Traditions Countries Classroom US/China  
Egypt

POPULATION

83,688,164 (July 2012 est.)

GDP PER CAPITA

$6,600 (2011 est.)

RELIGIONS

Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
> source

ALSO IN MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AND THE CAUCASUS

Algeria
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jordan
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Tunisia
Turkey
Yemen

EgyptPrinter-icon

Middle East, North Africa, and the Caucasus

The intersection of religion and politics in Egypt has been characterized by both gradual change and revolutionary rupture. Islam arrived in the 7th century CE, and Egypt emerged as a center of politics and culture in the Muslim world. British control during the late 19th and early 20th centuries allowed local and European intellectual traditions to mingle, contributing to the establishment of a nationalist, secular regime in the 1952 Revolution. Though Islam became the official state religion in 1971, Egyptian presidents largely continued to rule as they saw fit. In 2011, a popular revolution involving secular and religious actors ended 30 years of rule by Hosni Mubarak (1981-2011). The Muslim Brotherhood, which had previously been banned as a political party, won a majority of seats in the post-Revolution parliamentary elections, and the group’s political leader, Mohamed Morsi, was elected president. The Constitution grants freedom of religion, but authorities often restrict it in practice. Among those most directly affected are Coptic Christians, approximately 10% of the population.

TAGS

Muslim, Egypt

ESSAYS ON EGYPT

Islamic Conquest and the Ottoman Empire
Colonialism and the Rise of Egyptian Nationalism
Rise of Islamic Activism
Contemporary Affairs
Religious Freedom in Egypt
Religion in the Egyptian Constitution