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April 16, 2014  |  About the Berkley Center  |  Directions to the Center  |  Subscribe
 
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Sudan

POPULATION

34,206,710

GDP PER CAPITA

$2,800 (2011 est.)

RELIGIONS

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
> source

ALSO IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Ethiopia
Kenya
Mali
Nigeria
South Africa

SudanPrinter-icon

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sudan has a complex history characterized by the repeated intersection of religion and politics. Islam spread over much of the country over the course of a millennium, and played a central role in shaping the identity of the region’s inhabitants. Muhammad Ahmad (1844-85), a religious and nationalist leader, established an Islamic state in 1885 that lasted until Anglo-Egyptian forces toppled it in 1899. Even before independence in 1956, Sudan was torn by civil strife. The two Sudanese civil wars (1955-72 and 1983-2005) were fueled in part by religious conflicts between a largely Muslim north and a Christian and Animist south. South Sudan officially declared its independence in July 2011 with the support of the international community and President Omar al-Bashir’s authoritarian government (1989-present) in Khartoum. However, ongoing disputes over resources along the border threaten to escalate into war. President al-Bashir has been indicted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes relating to the Darfur conflict, and his government effectively favors Islam over other religions.

ESSAYS ON SUDAN

Nubia to the Ottoman Empire
Turkiyyah, Mahdiyyah, and Anglo-Egyptian Rule
Independence, Civil War, and Darfur
Contemporary Affairs
Religious Freedom in Sudan
Religion in the Sudanese Constitution