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July 31, 2014  |  About the Berkley Center  |  Directions to the Center  |  Subscribe
 
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TRADITION

TOPICS

Hinduism Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion encompassing diverse ritualistic Vedic traditions stressing the importance of karma and societal norms. The vast field of Hindu scriptures...

Demographics of Hinduism
印度教人口分布

Hinduism is the world’s third largest religion after Christianity and Islam, with nearly one billion adherents. Over 90 percent of all Hindus live in India. Nepal was the world’s only Hindu kingdom until democratization resulted in its transition into a secular state in 2006. During British colonialism, many indentured Indian servants were sent overseas on behalf of the empire. This accounts for the part of the Hindu diaspora in disparate places. For example, over half the population of the African island of Mauritius practice Hinduism; one quarter to one third of the South American and Caribbean countries of Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago are Hindu; and one third of Fijians are Hindu as well. The oil industry in the Arabian Peninsula has led to an influx of Hindu Indian laborers with low social status; Hindus represent 12 percent of Qatar and over 20 percent of the United Arab Emirates. In addition, significant Hindu communities exist in the United Kingdom and the United States. By best estimates, half of Hindus are Vaishnavas, devotees of Vishnu, and about a quarter are Shaivas, devotees of Shiva.
印度教是位列基督教和伊斯兰教之后的世界第三大宗教,有近10亿信徒,90%以上居住在印度。在2006年因民主化而成为世俗国家之前,尼泊尔是世界唯一的印度教王国。大英帝国役用印度契约佣工导致大量印度教徒散居世界各地。非洲岛国毛里求斯过半人口为印度教徒;在南非、加勒比地区、圭亚那、苏里南、和特立尼达及多巴哥共和国均有占总人口1/4至1/3的印度教徒;斐济也有1/3的印度教徒。阿拉伯半岛的石油业导致大量信仰印度教的低种姓印度劳工涌入,卡塔尔有12%印度教徒,阿联酋的印度教徒超过20%。英国、美国和世界其它地方也有数量可观的信仰印度教的少数族裔。据最为恰当的估计,半数印度教徒为虔敬毗湿奴的毗湿奴派,而约1/4则是虔敬湿婆的湿婆派。