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Halakha is the collective corpus of religious law in Judaism. Jewish law comes from the Torah, the Talmud, and established rabbinic decisions, as well as Jewish customs and traditions. Each halakhic commandment is termed a mitzvah (plural mitzvot). According to the Talmud and rabbinic tradition, there are 613 mitzvot given in the Torah, and there are also a number of rabbinically mandated mitzvot. The 613 mitzvot - known collectively as the Law of Moses - are comprised of six different law codes set forth in the Torah, including the Ten Commandments. Many mitzvot only apply under certain criteria, such as if one is a priest, a woman, or if one is in the Holy Land. During the Diaspora, many Jewish communities enforced halakha as their civil law. Once Jews were granted greater freedom to take part in the societies in which they lived in the 19th century, following halakha became voluntary as new Jewish denominations adopted differing views on Jewish law.
“哈拉卡”是犹太教宗教法律的全体合集。犹太法律来自于“托拉”、“塔木德”、确定的拉比的决定，以及犹太教的习俗和传统。每个“哈拉卡”诫命被称为“戒律（mitzvah）”（复数形式为“mitzvoth”）。根据塔木德和拉比传统，“托拉”里有613条戒律，以及大量的由拉比授权的戒律。这613条戒律——被统称为“摩西的律法 ”—— 是由六种不同的法典构成，在“托拉”里阐释，其中就包括了“十诫”。许多戒律仅适用于根据一定的标准，例如，如果是“某人是一个教士”，“某人是一个女人”，或者“某人在圣地上”。在“离散”中，许多犹太群体把“哈拉卡”作为民法执行。当19世纪时犹太人被赋予更大的对所生活社会的参与自由，“哈拉卡”就随之成为自愿性的，因为新的犹太宗派对犹太法律有各种不同的看法。