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Hinduism Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion encompassing diverse ritualistic Vedic traditions stressing the importance of karma and societal norms. The vast field of Hindu scriptures...

Karma (Hinduism)
羯磨(印度教)

Karma is the Hindu view of causality in which good deeds, words, thoughts, and commands lead to beneficial effects for a person, and bad deeds, words, thoughts, and commands lead to harmful effects. These effects are not necessarily immediate but can be visited upon a soul in future lives through reincarnation; additionally, good or bad fortune experienced in life may be the result of good or bad actions performed in a past life. One’s karmic state affects the reincarnation of the soul: good karma may lead to reincarnation as a human while bad karma can lead to reincarnation as an animal or other forms of non-human life. Many Hindus hold a theistic view of karma in which a personal god—such as Vishnu in Vaishnavism and Shiva in Shaivism—is responsible for administering karma according to a soul’s actions. Non-theistic strands of Hinduism believe that karma is a matter of basic cause-and-effect without the need of a deity to mediate the effects.

Karma is a core concept in the Indian religions, including Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, although their specific views on karma vary. In Hinduism, karma is the force of retributive justice that compels believers to behave righteously according to Dharma—the moral order of the universe. As such, karma is a central component of the Hindu ethical worldview. Further, because Hindu religious ordinances govern not just the individual believer but society as a whole, belief in karma enforces and perpetuates systems of social organization prescribed in Hindu scriptures. Karma also bolsters active worship on the part of believers, as many Hindus hold that bad karma can be counteracted through ritual activity including religious pilgrimages, temple worship, and making offerings to the gods.
印度教认为,羯磨(业)是一种因果关联,好的行动、言语、思想和指令给人带来有益的后果,而坏的行动、言语、思想和指令带来有害的后果。这些后果并不一定是即刻可见的,但能够体现于某一灵魂的投胎转世之后的来世生活之中;而且,生活中体验到的好运气或坏运气会是前世生活中的好的或坏的行动的结果。人的羯磨的状态影响到灵魂的转世:好的羯磨会导致投胎为人,坏的羯磨会导致投胎为动物或其他非人的生命形式。许多印度教徒持有一种有神论的羯磨的观点,认为,人格化的神——例如毗湿奴派中的毗湿奴,湿婆派中的湿婆——会按照灵魂的行动来管理其羯磨。非有神论的印度教分支则相信,羯磨是一个基本的因果关系,并不需要神灵巨细无縻地分派其影响。

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Hindu