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April 19, 2014  |  About the Berkley Center  |  Directions to the Center  |  Subscribe
 
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TRADITION

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Hinduism Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion encompassing diverse ritualistic Vedic traditions stressing the importance of karma and societal norms. The vast field of Hindu scriptures...

Samsara (Hinduism)
轮回(印度教)

Samsara is the continuous cycle of life, death, and reincarnation envisioned in Hinduism and other Indian religions. In Hindu and Buddhist practice, samsara is the endless cycle of life and death from which adherents seek liberation. In Hinduism, the prominent belief is that samsara is a feature of a life based on illusion (maya). Illusion enables a person to think s/he is an autonomous being instead of recognizing the connection between one's self and the rest of reality. Believing in the illusion of separateness that persists throughout samsara leads one to act in ways that generate karma and thus perpetuate the cycle of action and rebirth. By fully grasping the unity or oneness of all things, the believer has the potential to break the illusion upon which samsara is based and achieve moksha—liberation from samsara.

Whereas moksha (liberation) acts as the positive motivation for Hindu religious practice, samsara is the negative motivation from which Hindus seek liberation. The undesirable nature of samsara comes from its unpredictability—people are unaware of how the actions or karma in their present life will affect their future. Because past lives affect future ones, a person is never sure about their reincarnation and the suffering that might accompany it because of past actions. As the Indian conception of human existence (prior to one’s enlightenment), samsara is a central component of all religions originating in India. Buddhists and Sikhs view samsara in much the same way as Hindus, and Buddhists particularly stress the concept that life is a form of suffering that is encountered and perpetuated through samsara. Jainism sees samsara as a base and mundane form of existence that one ought to renounce.
在印度教与其他印度的宗教看来,轮回(僧娑洛/流转)是周而复始的生、死与再生。在印度教、以及其他共享这一概念的传统的思想之中,轮回是信徒企图避免的一种存在形式。只要人仍然按照迷或虚幻的看法、即他自己是与现实的其他部分隔开的,而非与其相联或同一,那么,他就会处于轮回之中。相信虚幻的分隔持续存在于轮回之中,使得人按照产生果报并由此导致重生的方式行事。在充分掌握了所有事物的联合或合一之后,信徒就能粉碎妄念、即轮回的基础,达到解脱——即从轮回中得到解放。