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TRADITION

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Hinduism Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion encompassing diverse ritualistic Vedic traditions stressing the importance of karma and societal norms. The vast field of Hindu scriptures...

Upanishads
《奥义书》

The Upanishads are a collection of philosophical Hindu scriptures which are commentaries on the Vedic texts. There are perhaps around 200 canonical Upanishads, the number varying from one compilation to another, though there are 10 principal Upanishads, which are considered Shruti—revealed by the divine as opposed to written strictly by human agency. The oldest Upanishads—Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya—were composed before the appearance of Buddhism in the fifth century BCE, while the rest, many of which show Buddhist influence, were written thereafter. Each of the ten principal Upanishads is associated with one of the four Vedas. The later Upanishads are largely reworkings of the principal Upanishads. The Upanishads are highly mystical and abstract, allowing for a wide range of interpretation.
《奥义书》是印度教哲学文献的汇集。大约有200种被认为是真经的《奥义书》,其多种汇编的卷册数有所不同,不过,有10种最重要的《奥义书》,被认为是“天启”,即神的启示,而不是严格由人代写下来的文字。最古老的《奥义书》,即《大林间奥义书》和《唱赞奥义书》,是公元前5世纪佛教出现之前编撰而成的,其余的部分,很多都表现出了佛教的影响,则是在佛教出现之后编写而成。后期的《奥义书》在很大程度上是对最主要的《奥义书》的重新编写。《奥义书》非常神秘而抽象,使得诠释的范围可以很大。