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April 24, 2014  |  About the Berkley Center  |  Directions to the Center  |  Subscribe
 
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TRADITION

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Hinduism Hinduism
Hinduism is an Indian religion encompassing diverse ritualistic Vedic traditions stressing the importance of karma and societal norms. The vast field of Hindu scriptures...

Vedas
吠陀

The Vedas are the earliest Hindu scriptures. The large body of texts known as the Vedas was composed roughly between 1500 and 500 BCE, and was predominantly orally transmitted until around 1000 CE. The Vedas are considered Shruti (“what is heard”), meaning they were directly revealed from the divine realm and not the original work of human beings. The core of the Vedas are the Samhitas, four collections of mantras and hymns: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda. The Brahmanas are prose commentaries on the Samhitas that detail the rituals to be performed with each Samhita mantra. The Aranyakas contain further discussion and interpretation of the rituals in the Brahmanas, along with other material. Many schools of Hindu thought have left behind much of the ritualism of the Vedas, stressing instead their philosophical teachings and using post-Vedic literature as the predominant source of scriptural authority.
《吠陀》是最早的印度教典籍。冠以《吠陀》之名的大部分文本都是在约公元前1500年至500年间编撰而成的,而且,在公元前1000年之前,主要是口头传播。《吠陀》被认为是“天启”(“所听到的”),意思是直接来自神圣领域的启示,而不是人类的原创性作品。吠陀的核心是《吠陀本集》,即四部咒语和歌曲的汇编,分别是:《梨俱吠陀》、《婆摩吠陀》、《夜柔吠陀》和《阿达婆吠陀》。《梵书》是对《吠陀本集》的散文式评述,包括对《梵书本集》的咒语、以及其他材料之中的礼仪的进一步讨论和解释。许多印度教思想学派将《吠陀》中的仪式主义置之一旁,而强调其哲学教义,并使用了《吠陀》之后的文献来作为最主要的权威文本。

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Hindu, India