Islamic Scripture

The primary scripture of Islam is the Qur’an, a book regarded by Muslims as the eternal, literal word of God as revealed to the prophet Muhammad over a 23-year period in the seventh century CE. The Qur'an sets out core Muslim beliefs about the oneness of God as well as moral and practical guidelines. The original Arabic, considered the final revelation by God to humanity, was fixed in writing shortly after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. The Qu’ran contains 114 chapters (suras), all but one beginning with the bismillah: “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” The secondary source of scriptural authority is the sunnah, the sayings and actions of Muhammad, compiled into collections knows as hadith in the centuries following his death. The Qur’an and the sunnah are the source of the divine law (sharia), which outlines rights owed to God and to others, including norms for family life (marriage, divorce, inheritance), commerce, finance, and war and peace.
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