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Historically Guatemala was a predominantly Catholic country, but over the last 30 years Pentecostalism has thrived. Visionary 1996 peace accords that engaged religious actors offered the promise of progress after decades of war. However, persistent social inequality, environmental degradation, institutional instability, and high levels of violence present important challenges. Religious institutions are a vital part of Guatemala’s polity, society, and economy and thus of prospects for peace and development.