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Carly Fiorina is a former business executive who unsuccessfully sought the 2016 Republican nomination for president; she briefly served as Ted Cruz's running mate. She has served on several boards, including Revolution Health Group, the World Economic Forum, American Conservative Union Foundation, and Opportunity International. Fiorina previously served in several high-profile executive positions, including CEO of the Hewlett-Packard Company and AT&T. In 2008, Fiorina challenged incumbent Barbara Boxer for a California Senate seat, winning the Republican primary but losing to Boxer in the general election. In the 2016 campaign Fiorina referenced her Christian faith in arguing that people of faith make better leaders; she defended her support for same-sex civil unions by distinguishing them from the "spiritual" act of marriage. She also criticized Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton for accomplishing little as senator and secretary of state. An alumna of Stanford University, Fiorina holds a M.B.A. from the University of Maryland, College Park and M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.