In "Church, State, Nation, and Civil Society in Spain and Poland," José Casanova uses Spain and Poland, two of the most fervent Catholic countries in Europe that also stood as the Catholic frontier for centuries, to analyze the interplay between church, state, nation, and civil society, as the two have diverged in recent history, despite a shared historical narrative. Casanova argues that the level of intolerance within the nation directly related to the level of separation of church and state. In addition, Casanova looks at the positive role played by the Catholic Church in democratization in both countries. Finally, Casanova notes that reprivatization has begun in both countries, though more noticeably in Spain than in Poland. This essay is a chapter in The Political Dimensions of Religion.