A book introduction in three parts, "Ortodoxias Seculares" first presents over-arching theoretical/analytical reflections on the concepts of orthodoxy and heterodoxy through the lens of a comparative historical sociology of religions and civilizations. The second part is a case study of Opus Dei as a religious organization that has displayed the typical modulations of heterodoxy and orthodoxy in response to the modern world. Finally, Casanova treats the elevation of the secular into a "doxa" in its own right in the modern West, especially in Europe. The introduction was published in Las Figuras del Desorden: Heterodoxos, Proscritos y Marginados: Actas del V Congreso de Historia Social de España, Ciudad Real, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 2005 (2006, eds. Pedro Oliver and Santiago Castillo).