The article "Religion, the New Millennium, and Globalization" from José Casanova discusses many of the pressing issues facing theological scholars in the years around and following the turn of the millennium. Casanova argues that society appeared to be less optimistic about Y2K, a reflection on the end of utopianism. However, in seeming contradiction of this idea, millennial religions have actually gained strength in recent years, and non-millennial religions celebrated the historic moment. In addition, Casanova reviews the effects of globalization on religion, first noting that supply-side theories do not fully explain religiosity, especially in Europe. More importantly, however, Casanova sees potential for the transnational Catholic Church and Pentecostals in a decentralized world, as both, not tethered to any one nation, have strengthened as states have weakened. Published in the winter 2001 edition of Sociology of Religion, the article is Casanova's 2000 presidential address to the Association for the Sociology of Religion.