Introducing a panel at the 2018 Prayer for Peace convened by the Community of Sant'Egidio, Katherine Marshall argues that inequality is the leading ethical challenge of our time. Its many dimensions extend from global, world affairs to the nation, local community, and even the family. It permeates wide-ranging topics, from healthcare and education to business practice and international finance. Inequalities among religious traditions and within religious communities are stark realities. She concludes by describing five dimensions of the challenge that are subject to particular contestation.