While there is considerable consensus among the various actors involved that international freedom of religion or belief (FoRB) is a central facet of human rights, and that it is too often violated, there are significant variations in—and even conflicts between—conceptions of and approaches to FoRB. A shared framework has yet to be established. Key questions turn around what kind of actors and initiatives are most effective in promoting and protecting FoRB in particular contexts, and how best to address specific areas of tension. This report by Marie Juul Petersen and Katherine Marshall addresses both tensions and gaps in understandings and approaches. It sketches the contours of a common framework for understanding and approaching international FoRB promotion in order to provide inspiration and basic guidance to support development of pertinent context-specific theories of change and strategies for action. The report was published by the Danish Institute for Human Rights in partnership with the Georgetown University Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs and the World Faiths Development Dialogue.