Sam Shapiro (SFS‘21) is an undergraduate student in the School of Foreign Service studying international politics with a certificate in religion, ethics, and world affairs. His research interests are in the intersection between lived religion and political discourse, and how the rule of law interacts with questions of religion and social life. Outside of his studies, he loves to play chess and watch basketball. Next year, he'll be returning to his native New York City to work for the Manhattan District Attorney's Office.
Sectarian conflict has long plagued the modern Middle East. Over the past two decades the region has splintered along sectarian lines over a host of political, military, and diplomatic issues. This project studies the roots of that divide, examining how much of it is theologically or politically derived, and how novel a challenge it is. It also examines measures that could be taken to bridge the gap between sectarian rivals, focusing on issues from Israeli and Turkish relations to regional economic cooperation organizations to religious diplomacy.
Bishara, Azmi. "Ta'ifah, Sect and Sectarianism: From the Word and Its Changing Implications to the Analytical Sociological Term." AlMuntaqa 1, no. 2 (2018): 53–67.
Dale, Stephen F. The Muslim Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Gengler, Justin. “Sectarianism from the Top Down or Bottom Up? Explaining the Middle East’s Unlikely De-Sectarianization after the Arab Spring.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 18, no. 1 (January 2020): 109–113.
Henley, Alexander D. M. Religious Authority and Sectarianism in Lebanon. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2016).
Khalil, Osman. Sectarianism in Iraq: The Making of State and Nation Since 1920. London: Routledge, 2014.
Pew Research Center. The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center (2012).
Robinson, Heather M., David E. Thaler, Ben Cannable, and Ali G. Scotten. Sectarianism in the Middle East: Implications for the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2018.
Stewart, Dona J. The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2013.