Largely a desk study, this report is an effort to take stock and delineate policy issues and agendas, focusing on how emerging institutions in the Muslim world, especially those with explicit faith links, are approaching issues of social and economic development. It seeks to explore relationships among public, private, and religiously inspired actors; financing issues, including the new landscape post-September 11, 2001; and approaches to leading issues such as children, education, health, and gender. The report reviews the religious and legal backdrop for social welfare organizations, primarily based on analysis of the academic and policy literature that focuses explicitly on this group of organizations and their development work. Given the wide diversity of sectoral and country situations, the report outlines a set of portraits of key sectors and of a limited group of illustrative countries. Finally, the paper sketches policy issues under discussion.